Part 2
Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS
e-mail :
1980, 1982, updated 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996


Divination was, and is, regarded by many as an occult art. The word "occult" means concealed, hidden, known-only-to-the-few (the initiates). It also means mysterious, cabalistic, mystical and supernatural. Thus, orthodox religions are suspicious of the occult and are divided on its ethics and morality. Some regard dowsing as a human psychic attribute, more developed in some people than in others, a gift, which can be used for good or evil purposes in the same way as all other human attributes: speech, thought, sexuality, creativity etc. However, some fundamentalists regard it as a form of black magic, an evil activity with demonic links.

All great cultures (North and South American Indians, Eskimos, Siberians, Tibetans, Chinese, Australian and African tribes, and the Celtic and Jewish peoples) used dowsing techniques from pre-historic times. The common uses in primitive societies were to find water, food (game, fish) and missing persons or property. The Shaman, or Wise One, in each tribe, or village, was attributed with "Second Sight": the Seer "knew" when one of the tribe was ill, and, especially sensed death or disaster. Before the advent of cell-phones and other modern means of communication, the traditions of the Polynesian, Inuit and Celtic peoples have many stories of the tribes gathering for the funeral of a leader or friend who had died far away, and whose death could not be known by conventional means.

However, research suggests that animals also have psychic abilities. These include telepathy, ability to find water, food, their young and mates and to navigate at great distances etc. Dowsing abilities are seen as visceral survival mechanisms, i.e. they are vegetative responses, not confined to Homo sapiens. If this is so, it is not necessary to see these phenomena as "human-spiritual". Instead they can be seen as intuitive, basic survival instincts, which urbanisation and rationalisation have suppressed to a large extent, but which can be trained to greater levels by those who need to use them.

There are two main types of dowsing: physical and absent dowsing. In physical-local dowsing, a search is made for the missing object in the locality where it is expected to be found. For example, the dowser may move the instrument slowly down the spine of the patient, seeking the location of a suspected disc prolapse. Is this a location of the problem ? Or one may walk over ground with Y-stick with the question: "Am I passing over a water-fissure? Am I passing over a geopathic zone?

In distant-absent dowsing the dowser uses a systematic mental question and answer technique to obtain information about someone or something which could be on the opposite side of the world. To help concentration, the dowser usually requires a "witness" of the object of the search. For example, in diagnosis, the healer may use a blood-spot, a saliva sample or clippings of hair or nails from the patient to help him/her to concentrate on ("tune in" to) the absent patient. Other examples of distant dowsing are map-dowsing for water or missing persons; body-chart dowsing for diagnostic purposes; visualisation to "see" and "internally see" the patient, or to "see" what reaction an instrument (X-ray, blood test, US-scan, pendulum etc) would give to their specific question.


Most novice dowsers use some instrument to indicate the presence of a "Yes" or "No" reaction. Common instruments used in dowsing are: the Y stick and angle-irons; the pendulum; the rubbing pad; radionic instruments and Vega-type instruments.

a. The Y stick: Any Y or V shaped rod, stick or other flexible lever can be used. The materials may be natural wood or whale-bone or plastic, fibreglass, metal etc. The type of material is not important but the instrument should be flexible enough to allow a good spring action and prevent it breaking when the hand pressure comes on. A wire coat hanger, straightened out and then bent in two makes an ideal V stick. The handles are gripped loosely and hand pressure is exerted until the lever is at the brink of instability in the horizontal position. This is the "working position" for the stick. A "yes" reaction is indicated by a twisting motion from the horizontal into the vertical (down or up), due to involuntary contraction of the flexor or extensor muscles of the forearms. A "no" reaction is indicated by the stick staying in or near the horizontal.

Angle-irons are made of metallic rods 2-4 mm thick. Wire coat-hangers can be used: two lengths, c. 50 cm each, are straightened and a right-angle is made c. 10 cm from one end of each rod. The short end of each rod is inserted into a loose-fitting sleeve of metal, wood or plastic. A disposable plastic biro (without the ink tube and stopper) makes an ideal sleeve. The angle-iron is free to move within its sleeve. While holding the sleeves vertically, one in each hand, with long ends of the rods pointing forward (parallel), the dowser walks over the site to be dowsed. The parallel-forward position is the working ("No") position. When, due to involuntary muscle contractions, the two rods swing from a forward-parallel position to a crossed-in, or a crossed-out position, the "Yes" dowsing reaction is indicated. Angle-irons are slower to react than the Y stick. They are used most often for local (site-work) dowsing, but they can be used for distant dowsing and diagnostic work also.

b. The pendulum is a weight (15-45 grams) suspended from a thread. The materials are irrelevant: plastic, ebony, metal, perspex, wood etc. The cord can be of thread, nylon, silver, gold or brass chain. Some dowsers use a gold wedding ring suspended from a piece of sewing thread. The pendulum is set in motion in a line to and from the operator (Fig a). A pendulum which receives no further impulses eventually slows down and stops. However, involuntary muscle tremors keep the pendulum moving. Such movement can be of three types :

1. As before (Fig a)

2. Change from oscillation (Fig a) to clockwise or anticlockwise rotation (Fig b);

3. Change the angle of original oscillation (Fig a) to A1-B1 (Fig c).

The operator, through trial and error, learns which are his/her "Yes" and "No" reactions to the mental questions or the physical search (e.g. over the body of a patient or over a field etc).

Complete the diagrams, showing angles of oscillation and clockwise/ anticlockwise rotation.


		Fig (a)                                   Fig (c)

		  B                                         B        B1


		  |                                         |  .  

		  |                                         |

		  |                                      .  |


		  A                                A1       A  

	     	operator                                  operator

                                 Fig (b)







c. The rubbing pad is a thin pad or membrane, made of latex or other rubber. The pad usually is stretched and mounted on a frame or "black box". Earlier dowsers used to rub blocks of ebony or bakelite. The object is to detect involuntary muscle twitch by a "sticking" action of the fingers on the rubbing pad. The operator concentrates on the object of his/her search and begins to stroke the rubbing pad with rhythmic, firm strokes, so that the fingers are almost (but not quite) sticking to the surface. Then, posing the question, the rubbing continues. A "Yes" reaction is indicated by involuntary increase of muscle tension which causes increased friction between the fingers and the rubbing pad. This causes the rubber to crumple and slap back to the base (i.e.) the classic "Stick Reaction".

d. Radionic instruments: The topic of radionic diagnosis and therapy could take up a whole series of seminars. Suffice it to say that it is still highly controversial, despite decades of use. Early exponents of these instruments included Drs. Abrams, Ruth Drown (USA), George Delawarr (UK) and David Tansley (USA). There are many types of instrument and are more sophisticated than "Rubbing Pads", in that they are electrically- or battery- powered and a "Diagnostic Cup" into which a "witness" of the patient (blood spot, hair sample etc), or a test-homoeopathic remedy etc can be placed.

The diagnostic aspects are similar to those already discussed under dowsing. Originally, the operators of this technique believed that the energy emissions in disease could be detected on specific wavelengths on special detector boxes. These boxes consisted of a series of rotatable magnets, dials and antennae of adjustable sizes. They believed that each disease had its own set of "rates" or antenna settings. These detector boxes (which are expensive) appear to give very good diagnostic results in skilled hands. However, many dowsers have got equally good results by simple dowsing. Also, it has been shown that the dials, knobs and inside wiring are not essential for diagnostic accuracy. With wiring disconnected, an unknowing radionics operator could work as if the circuits were fully wired-up! It is the mind and intention of the operator which matter. If the operator believes he/she needs an expensive eye-catching detector, then he/she needs it! If he/she believes that a bunch of keys (used as a pendulum) will work, he/she will probably get equally effective results.

e. Instruments of the Voll-Vega type: In severe disorders of a Channel, its organ, or its functions, many points along the Channel show abnormal sensitivity to pressure probes, palpation, electric current or heat. This reflects disorder in the vital energy (Qi) in the Channels. Altered point sensitivity occurs especially at the Ting points. These are the Well Points, the most distal points, located at the nail of a toe or finger. Altered sensitivity at a Ting point, or at other special measurement points, is the basis of the diagnostic methods of Drs. Akabane, Reinhold Voll and others.

Akabane (Japan) used heat-sensitivity at the Ting Points to assess Qi Excess or Qi Deficiency in one or more of the Twelve Main Channels. He held a lighted incense stick at a fixed distance from each point and used a stopwatch to count the latency (in seconds) until the subject reported a stinging sensation at the point. Hyper- or hypo- activity in a Channel was determined by comparing the latency at each point with the mean for that limb and with the latency at the same point on the opposite limb. Other workers developed this principle using electrical resistance at AP measurement points.

Electronic diagnostic instruments which use the principle of altered point sensitivity are sophisticated electrical resistance- or conductance- meters. They were developed by Japanese (Nakatani, Motoyama), American, German (Voll) and other workers. The instruments are said to be fast and reliable. Electrical conductivity and the DC potential of the points usually increases in Qi Excess in a Channel. Conductivity decreases in Qi Deficiency. Altered point sensitivity in disease may be unilateral (especially when the lesion is unilateral) or bilateral.

Some acupuncturists use the location of the sensitive points to assist in diagnosing the location of the disease. For instance, in vague abdominal pains, if the points on the ST Channel and the Earpoint "stomach" were more sensitive than other points, this would indicate that the lesion or problem was with the stomach or its functions. It is claimed that disease can be diagnosed in the very early stages (such as pre-clinical cancer) with these methods. Infra-red thermography has confirmed the diagnostic claim of Voll-Akabane-Ryodoraku measurements of altered sensitivity at peripheral points: organs project information of their disease to the periphery via the autonomic nervous system. Clinical detection of the altered sensitivity aids in diagnosis. Any method (including AP) which speeds up the return to normal sensitivity is a good therapeutic method. Also, monitoring the speed of return to normal sensitivity has prognostic value.

Unfortunately, there is little written in orthodox scientific refereed journals on these claims and little research seems to have been done with these methods in animals. The instruments are very expensive and there is inadequate proof of their value. As the probes are not spring-loaded on many of these instruments, constant probe-pressure can not be guaranteed. Any involuntary changes in applied probe-pressure can change the electrical readings from the points. This is a weakness of these instruments. Also, some of these instruments contain a "Diagnostic Cup", as in some Radionic Instruments. A "witness" of the patient (blood spot, hair sample etc), or a test-homoeopathic remedy etc can be placed in the cup and is said to influence the readings, Physicists reject that claim, as they say that there are no precedents in physics to explain this. However, these instruments appear to give excellent diagnostic help to some practitioners. I believe that this is best explained as a form of dowsing, in which involuntary changes in probe pressure manifest the intuitive diagnosis of the healer.

There are many other "diagnostic instruments". These include pointer rods, crystals, pyramids, colour/shape patterns on filter paper induced by interaction of silver-, or other-, chemical salts with the patient's urine etc. However, the Y stick, pendulum and rubbing pad are the most common.


Diagnosis is the location of the diseased systems or organs, recognition of the nature of the illness and identification of the causes of the problem and the predisposing factors which allow it to manifest as clinical illness. Merely putting a clinical name or tag on the disease is not diagnosis!

Orthodox diagnosis is based on careful clinical examination, together with a knowledge of the environment and psyche of the patient and any clinical or laboratory tests which may be indicated.

Holistic, or psychic, methods can lead to the same conclusions as orthodox diagnosis. However, radically different conclusions are reached occasionally because holistic-psychic diagnosis considers many causes other than the orthodox causes, including Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) diagnosis, psychic attack (Fortune 19...), food allergy (Breneman 1987; Coca 1978; Mackarness 1976; Randolph 1951, 1965), geopathic and geophysical causes ("black streams" crossing under the bed, noxious EMG fields etc).

In psychic diagnosis it is most important for the operator:

a. to "tune-in" to (feel empathy/sympathy for, and compassion with, the patient and the cosmos and

b. to relax mentally and to become disinterested in, or detached from,the outcome.

He/she must beware of pre-conceived notions and personal diagnostic "hobby-horses".

Major system involved: Then a search is made through ALL the main systems using the mental question "is there something seriously wrong with system X?". Thus, one searches all the main systems (nervous (central/peripheral), endocrine, immune, skin, musculoskeletal, visceral (cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive etc) etc.

Location involved: If a "yes reaction" emerges, the location is searched. For example, if the skeletal system gives "yes", one would question the location as: skull? spine?, upper limb?, thorax?, abdomen?, lower limb?. If "yes" to spine?, one would ask: cervical?, thoracic?, lumbar?, sacral?. If "yes" to lumbar spine: is it at : T12, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5-S1?

Nature of the disorder: Having found the location of the problems, their nature is questioned systematically, considering possibilities of: immune disorders (autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, immunosuppression, infections, parasitic, cancer, etc); toxins (microbial, plant or chemical); neuroendocrine (autonomic (poor microcirculation, smooth muscle spasm etc), endocrine etc); degeneration, traumatic (muscle injury, prolapsed disc etc); nutritional and metabolic disorders etc.

Other causes and predisposing factors: Further information on the causes and predisposing factors may be evident on consideration of: genetic susceptibility, environmental factors (climate, geophysical EMG fields), stress (spiritual, psychological, physical), etc.

Fixed, systematic routine: When using psychic methods of diagnosis, it is most important to follow a systematic routine, to avoid omitting relevant (possible) locations, nature of disease, causes and predisposing factors. Haphazard searching usually gives poor results and incomplete information on the problem.

Some operators prefer to diagnose in the presence of the patient. Others may diagnose using a photograph of the patient. Still others use merely a diagram, for example, of a horse (in diagnosing a horse problem) and concentrate on their patient while moving the pendulum or V rod etc over the diagram.


The main methods used in diagnostic dowsing are diagnostic autotraining, the diagnostic pulses (VAS, surrogate, Chinese), diagnostic visualisation and Westermayer's method.


With experience and increasing self-confidence, some dowsers dispense with the usual instruments. They believe that their spirit-mind-body can act as the diagnostic biosensor. One can train oneself to recognise involuntary sensory or motor reactions. These include pulse changes; visualisation; mental, visual, auditory and physical sensations in the mental state of "My body = patient's body!", etc.

Autotraining is a form of autonomic-vegetative learning. It is a mental, somatic and visceral process which can be induced by Pavlovian methods of reward and punishment" techniques in animals and humans.

Biofeedback ... rats, humans, ...

Thus, some dowsers train (programme) themselves to recognise a "Yes Reaction" by registering involuntary muscle twitches of the back, face, eyelids, neck or arm muscles, or "feeling it" a tickle or itch in the palm or finger. They slowly move their hand, or a pointer, or point the finger, along the body of the patient (or the map etc) being searched. They "know" when they have found the objects of the search, as they have programmed themselves to register an itch or tickle in the finger as it passes over the problem area.

TaiQi and QiGong are two very useful ways to train the Qi of the body and the mind respectively. Pulse-taking, self-hypnosis and visualisation are other advanced methods of autotraining, which will be discussed below.


The VAS Pulse: ...

Surrogate Pulses: When in a detached mental state, in communion with the patient (human or animal), Adepts and Seers can sense changes in their own pulses (or those of the owner or handler) which reflect the Qi status of the identical Channel of the patient. The patient may be nearby or far away.

Surrogate pulse taking must be defined as paranormal. It is similar to kinesiological diagnostic techniques, such as the Omura O-Ring test (force needed to break the O-Ring made between a surrogate's thumb and index finger) or more classical kinesiological muscle tests (in which the strength of a surrogate's muscles (for example, the resistance to forcing down the extended arm) is questioned systematically, as in dowsing). ...

Chinese pulse diagnosis, physical or psychic?: In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the Qi status in each of the 12 Main Channels can be assessed by the qualities of the Pulses at 3 positions over each radial artery. The classic positions are indicated in the table below.

  Left Radial Artery        Pulse            Right Radial Artery  

Superficial       Deep      Position       Deep        Superficial

   SI              HT       Distal         LU              LI

   GB              LV       Middle         SP              ST

   BL              KI       Proximal       PC              TH

In taking the pulse, the operator compares the quality of the pulse at each of the three positions while applying gently and then deeper pressure to assess the superficial and deep qualities. It is said that pulse taking can take up to half an hour.

This suggests to me that the mechanism is mainly by a type of dowsing, a comparisons of the sensations to: "is there something wrong with the SI pulse?" HT pulse? SI pulse? HT pulse (compare ... compare ...).

An American author (Callehr) reported his methods of pulse diagnosis and the outcome of treatment in a large number of human psychiatric cases. The clinical results were very impressive but the pulses were read on incorrect hands (the opposite hands to the classical).

In Western AP the Chinese Pulse is largely ignored, mainly because of lack of expertise. Modern texts from China, Taiwan and HongKong also ignore it, or give it very brief discussion. Furthermore, high therapeutic success rates are reported by physicians who ignore the Pulse system. However, in skilled hands, Pulse Diagnosis can be extraordinarily accurate but I believe it to be a psychic rather than a physical, objectively demonstrable phenomenon. Those who wish to study Pulse Diagnosis will find details in Wu Wei Ping, Mary Austin or Nguyen van Nghi.


Some practitioners do not use physical instruments but visualise (in their "mind's eye", behind closed eyelids) what reaction the instrument would give to their specific question.

"Unless ye become as little children": Young children can spend long periods "daydreaming". They "See" things as they wish to see them, usually with their eyes wide open. Most adults have lost the ability to visualise whether they open or close their eyes. However, it is not too difficult to relearn the technique.

Relearning to visualise: An easy exercise in visualisation is to look at a matchbox, or pencil, or pipe etc. Close your eyes and try to "See" the object on the back of your eyelids. Can you see its shape, colour, texture? In the beginning the results are poor. Later, visualisation of physical objects is easy. Then, one proceeds to visualise people, scenes etc. (This method can be used very successfully in self-relaxation. You can "play" your favourite 18 holes of golf, or "fish" your favourite river or lake very easily with this method).

Diagnostic visualisation: Having mastered these forms of visualisation, one can try to diagnose the more difficult cases by visualising the patient. The Silva Mind Control technique (see references) is excellent to teach these methods. There are many ways of doing this. Three common methods of diagnostic visualisation follow:

a. Visualisation with eyes closed: Adopt a system of "normal" and "abnormal" signs for this. For example, make a white or golden haze the "normal" signal and a red flashing light the abnormal. "Scan" the visualised body from head to toe looking for the problem areas. Begin the scan with a white or golden haze above the head and then move down the body. If the "normal haze" is interrupted by a red flasher at any point, visualise deeply into the body at that point. Imagine that your mental eyes have X-ray- or CAT-scan- ability to locate the organ involved. Having found the organ visualise the normal haze again. This time adopt the same code (haze = OK; red flasher = problem) while mentally asking the question: is it inflammation, infection, cancer, trauma, etc, etc ?

b. Visualisation with eyes open: Look at the patient, or an image (photograph, diagram etc) of the patient. Proceed as in (a) above.

c. The "Silva Mental Laboratory": The Silva Method teaches students a form of deep relaxation or self-hypnosis. Each student constructs a Mental Work-space. The Work-space can contain every conceivable piece of computerised diagnostic equipment which the healer may need: X-ray, CAT scanners, ultrasound scanners, blood- and gas- analyzers, electronic diagnostics, a state-of-the-art custom-made work-chair etc. The Work-space also has Professional Helpers, specialist consultants and colleagues from the Mental World, who volunteer to help (on request), as needed by the case.

The subject to be diagnosed is presented mentally to the reception area of the Work-space and is logged-in. His/her previous files are recovered and perused. He/she is then taken to the examination areas for a full work-up. All instruments, computers, printouts, scans etc are activated by thought (no hands are needed for keyboard-work etc). Computerised reports, or scans, are projected in colour to a high-resolution flat-screen which is transferable to any wall within the Work-space. In two Silva courses, which I attended, students with little or no knowledge of medicine were able to get 60-100% accuracy in distant psychic diagnosis at the end of 40 hours of training! Such results seem incredible but they were real! For myself, it's a case of "Now you see it, now you don't!". Sometimes it works but more often it is not correct. I am still trying to get the method to work consistently for me. Meanwhile, I use more conventional diagnostic methods!


I and many other veterinarians observed the diagnostic methods used by late Erwin Westermayer (Bellamont, Germany). For me, Erwin was a truly great diagnostician, healer and Magus. His diagnostic skills were legendary and I know of few equals. He did not have to see the animal patient, or to have a detailed history of the case. Three of his methods are described.

a. "My body is patient's body; what do I feel ?": This was Erwin's favourite party-piece. He would stop his car some kilometres from the farm and get out on the side of the road. He relaxed into a type of trance and began to move the various joints and parts of the body, from the head to the toes. He systematically visualised himself in the animal's body and "felt" for any subjective sign in his own body to tell him what the animal was trying to tell him:

"My right eye is the (calf's) eye; what do I feel?";

"My left ear is the (cows's) ear; what do I feel?";

"My neck is the (horse's) neck; what do I feel?";

"My right hock is the (dog's) hock; what do I feel?"


Within a minute or so, he sensed in his own body the site of pain, discomfort, or other lesion which he saw when he later examined his patient clinically.

b. Visualisation: (See above). Erwin also used visualisation (with his back turned to the patient), and he taught this method successfully to other vets. I saw two novices of this technique diagnose with great accuracy physically objective lesions (splint, periostitis, curb etc) on horses which they had not seen until they had verbalised the diagnosis to observers.

c. Autotraining: (See above). Erwin would run his hand over the animal at a distance of 2-4 cm from the skin and sense a tickle, or itch, or sensation of warmth or cold as the sign that that part of the animal was signalling distress to him.