Philip A.M. Rogers MRCVS

Acupuncture (AP) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)


9.        PC- Pericardium (Circulation-Sex) Channel (Hand Jueyin)
PC (Yin) and TH (Yang) are paired Fire organs. They are called "Ministerial Fire," as compared with HT and SI ("Sovereign Fire"). Though the PC has no separate physiological functions, it is generally mentioned with regard to the delirium induced by high fevers.

Regulation of Qi in the PC is very important in Qigong. The purpose of the PC is to regulate the HT-Qi via the Laogong cavity. HT is the most vital organ in the body; to function normally, HT must have a proper level of Qi circulation. HT-Qi can be raised easily to an abnormal HT-Shi state by illness, emotional disturbance, exercise, or injury. PC function is to drain the excess Qi (HT-Shi) from HT and direct it to PC08 (the Laogong cavity, in the centre of the palm). Qi-Shi is released naturally from PC08, thus regulating HT-Qi. PC08 is used in Qigong massage to reduce body temperature in fever.

Qigong recognises 5 Gates (centres, cavities, holes, AP points) where body Qi communicates with the surrounding environment. These Gates regulate the level of body Qi. Two of these 5 Gates are the Laogong (PC08) cavities, used to regulate the HT-Qi. Two others are the Yongquan (KI01) cavities, used to regulate KI-Qi. The fifth one is the face. The face has connections to many organs. Whenever any organ Qi is not normal, it shows on the face.

10.        TH - Triple Heater (TH) Channel (Hand-Shaoyang)

Sanjiao=Three Jiao (Burning Spaces, Burners, Heaters). TH (Yang) and PC (Yin) are paired Fire organs. They are called "Ministerial Fire," as compared with HT and SI ("Sovereign Fire"). At least as far back as the 3rd century AD, in the "Classic of Difficulties" (Nanjing) the TH was regarded as "having a name but no form." In the Neijing, the TH was considered an organ that coordinated all the functions of water metabolism. In other traditional documents, the TH was considered as 3 regions of the body that were used to group the organs. The Upper Jiao includes the chest, neck, and head as well as the functions of HT and LU. The Middle Jiao is the region between the chest and the navel, and includes the functions of the ST, LV, and SP. The Lower Jiao spans the lower abdomen, and the functions of KI and BL. Therefore, the Upper Jiao has been compared to a mist which spreads the Xue and Qi, the Middle Jiao is like a foam which churns up food in the process of digestion, and the Lower Jiao resembles a swamp where all the impure substances are excreted.

Regulating the Qi to a normally "smooth-flow" state is one of the main Qigong training methods for maintaining health. It is normally done through Wai Dan exercises, and it is believed that the Qi must flow around internal organs smoothly in order for them to maintain their normal functions. This means that in order to keep Qi flow smooth and the organs healthy, you must first learn how to regulate and relax muscles that are holding and related to a given organ. External movements also exercise internal muscles. One of the main external exercises is regulating the TH by lifting your hands up above your head and then moving them down slowly. These up and down arm movements extend and relax the internal muscles and thereby increase Qi flow.

11.        GB - Gallbladder Channel (Foot-Shaoyang)
GB (Yang) and LV (Yin) are paired Wood organs. They correspond with the direction east, the spring season, climatic Wind, the colour green, the emotion of anger, the taste of sourness, the goatish odour, and the sound of shouting. Their point of entry is the eyes. They control the sinews (muscles and joints), and their health is reflected in the finger and toe nails.

The main function of the GB is storing and excreting the bile produced by LV. Together with HT, the GB controls decision-making.

The main disease related to the GB is a disorder affecting the flow of bile, usually caused by Damp and Heat. This is commonly manifested by pain in the region of LV, an oppressive sensation of fullness in the abdomen, and yellowish eyes, skin, urine, and tongue.

The GB has never enjoyed serious attention during Qigong training. Its paired partner LV however, has received much more attention.

12.        LV - Liver Channel (Foot-Jueyin)
LV (Yin) and the GB (Yang) are paired Wood organs. They correspond with the direction east, the spring season, climatic Wind, the colour green, the emotion of anger, the taste of sourness, the goatish odour, and the sound of shouting. Their point of entry is the eyes. They control the sinews (muscles and joints), and their health is reflected in the finger and toe nails.

The main task of LV is to spread and regulate Qi throughout the entire body. Its unique character is moving, flowing and free (like leaves and branches (Wood) in the Wind). Therefore, depression or frustration can disturb the functioning of LV. LV also stores Xue when the body is at rest. This characteristic, together with its control over the lower abdomen (Lower Jiao), makes it the most critical organ in regards to women's menstrual cycle and sexuality.

Depression or long-term frustration can cause LV-Stasis, stagnating the LV function of spreading Qi, and result in continuing depression, a bad temper, and a painful, swollen feeling in the chest and sides. If this Syndrome worsens, it may cause disharmony between LV and the ST and/or SP. This disorder is symbolized by the "rebellion" of Qi in the latter organs, whereby Qi moves in the opposite direction than is normal.

Yang_JM04 (1996) The 12 Main Qi Channels: Part 4. For example, the ST-Qi normally descends; rebellious ST-Qi means hiccoughing, vomiting, etc. SP-Qi normally moves upward; rebellious SP-Qi means diarrhoea.

Depression of LV-Qi is the main cause of many women's disorders, including menstrual irregularities, swollen and painful breasts, etc.

One of the main functions of LV is to store Xue and to nourish and moisten it. In LV-Xue-Xu, LV cannot handle the function of moistening. This is generally shown as dry and painful eyes with blurred or weak vision, lack of suppleness or pain in moving the joints, dry skin, dizziness, and infrequent or spotty menstruation. If LV-Yin Xu is serious, the Syndromes Rising LV-Fire or LV-Yang-Shi Ascending occur. These occurrences are evidenced in ill-temper, restlessness, headache, vertigo, red face and eyes, and a parched mouth. If LV-Yin-Xu is so bad that it can not secure LV-Yang, many of the symptoms appear as disorders of the head. Weakness in the lower joints may occur also.

LV is one of the Five Zang (Yin Solid Organs); it receives its Qi from its Wood-Pairmate GB. The Qigong practitioner wants to regulate LV-Qi. When LV-Qi is regulated, GB-Qi is regulated also, because LV and GB are connected physically, and their Channels are connected directly in the Wood Yin-Yang Pair. Many methods can regulate LV-Qi. Wai Dan Qigong works through the limbs. For example, when the arms are moved up and down, the internal muscles surrounding LV will be moved and the Qi around LV will be circulated smoothly. In Nei Dan Qigong, LV is closely related to the mind. When the mind is regulated, the Qi circulation in LV will be normal and therefore LV will function properly.

Important Points
1.        SP, LV and HT are the organs with the most direct relationship with the Xue. SP filters the Xue (modifying the blood's structure), LV stores the Xue, and HT moves it. Any problem associated with Xue will involve at least one of these organs.

2.        LV and KI are closely related. Their Channels cross in many places. LV stores Xue; KI stores Jing-Essence. These substances, both of which are Yin, influence reproductive functions.

3.        HT (Upper Jiao, Fire) and KI (Lower Jiao, Water) keep each other in check and are depend on one another. HT-Shen-Spirit and KI-Jing-Essence cooperate to establish and maintain human consciousness.

4.        The transportive and digestive functions of SP (also called Middle Qi) depend on the strength of KI-Yang. SP and LV also are interdependent. The digestive function of SP is associated with the distributive functions of LV. Disharmony between SP and LV causes many digestive troubles.

5.        Although LU governs Qi, LU-Qi must mix with KI-Jing-Essence before Yuanqi can be produced. LU governs Qi, LV spreads Qi and KI provides its basis.

Yang_JMa01 (1996) The Eight Extraordinary Qi Vessels: Part 1. Adapted from WWW ( from the book by Jwing-Ming YANG: "Chinese Qigong Massage", YMAA Publication Centre, Jamaica Plain.

The 8 Extraordinary Vessels and the 12 Main Channels (meridians) comprise the main part of the Channel Qi system. Most of the 8 Extraordinary Vessels branch out from the 12 Main Channels and share the function of circulating Qi throughout the body. These Vessels form a web of complex interconnections with the Channels. At the same time, each has its own functional characteristics and clinical utility independent of the Channels. TCM emphasizes the 12 Main organ-related Channels and only 2 of the 8 Vessels (the GV and the CV). The other 6 Vessels are not used very often, because they are not understood as well as the other Channels. A lot of research needs to be done on them. Although they were discovered >2000 yr ago, little has been written about them. Research on the Extraordinary Vessels is under-way today, especially in Japan, but the results of one researcher often contradict those of another.

The important points are summarized below from the very few original TCM texts available. I have used my own judgement to select ideas and details, as references from TCM texts are very scarce and references from Western AP texts are tentative, esoteric, or in disagreement with one another. Before reviewing these 8 Vessels, we will first define them and summarize their functions.

The 8 Extraordinary Vessels
The 8 Vessels are called "Qi Jing Ba Mai." Qi means Extraordinary, odd, strange, or mysterious. Jing means Channel or meridian. Ba means 8 and Mai means Vessel. Qi Jing Ba Mai is then translated as "Extraordinary Channels and 8 Vessels" or "Extraordinary Vessels". "Extraordinary or Odd" has a meaning of strange in Chinese. It is used simply because these 8 Vessels are not well understood. Many Chinese doctors explain that they are "Odd" simply because four Vessels are not paired (GV, CV, Chong Mai and Dai Mai). Since these 8 Vessels also contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis, some times they are called "Homeostatic Vessels." French acupuncturists call them "Miraculous Vessels" because they were able to create therapeutic effects when all other techniques had failed. Also, because each of these Channels exerts a strong effect upon psychic functioning and individuality, t he command points are among the main psychological points in the body. For this reason, they are occasionally called "The 8 Psychic Channels.".

These Vessels (Mai) are:

1. Du Mai (Governing Vessel, GV)
2. Ren Mai (Conception Vessel, CV)
3. Chong Mai (Thrusting Vessel)
4. Dai Mai (Girdle-Belt Vessel)
5. Yangqiao Mai (Yang Heel Vessel)
6. Yinqiao Mai (Yin Heel Vessel)
7. Yangwei Mai (Yang Linking Vessel)
8. Yinwei Mai (Yin Linking Vessel).

General Functions of the 8 Vessels

1.        They serve as Qi Reservoirs
It is difficult to generalize the characteristics and functions of the 8 Vessels because they are so different from each other. However, in his Nanjing, Bian Que specified one of the main characteristics of the 8 Vessels. He reported that: "The 12 Main (organ-related) Qi Channels constitute rivers; the 8 Extraordinary Vessels constitute reservoirs". These reservoirs, especially CV and GV, absorb Qi-Shi (Excess) from the main Channels, and then return it when they are weak (Xu). Because of the few TCM texts, as well as the lack of modern, scientific methods of Qi research, it is difficult to determine the precise behaviour and characteristics of these 8 Vessels. They can be understood on different levels, and they perform different functions and contain every kind of Qi such as Ying Qi, Weiqi, Jing Qi, and even Xue.

The 8 Vessels supply Qi if it becomes weak (Qi-Xu) in the 12 Main Channels. That reserve of Qi is easily mobilised by AP needling the cavities (special AP points, called Hui-Connection points) which connect the 8 Vessels to the 12 Channels. Hui-Connection points behave like the gates of a reservoir, which can be used to adjust the strength of the Qi flow in the rivers and the level of Qi in the reservoir. Sometimes, when it is necessary, the reservoir will release Qi by itself. For example, when a person has a physical or mental shock, Qi is weakened (Qi-Xu) in some of the main Channels. This causes particular organs to be stressed, and Qi-Stasis occurs rapidly around these organs. When this happens, the reservoir must release Qi to increase Qi circulation in the weak (Xu) Channel and to prevent further damage.

2.        Guard Specific Areas Against Perverse-Qi ("Evil Qi").
Weiqi (Defensive- or Guardian- Qi) protects the body from External attack (trauma, invasion by outside intruders, Perverse-Qi ("Evil Qi") etc). Among the 8 Vessels, the Chong Mai, the GV, and the CV play major roles in guarding the abdomen, thorax, and the back.

3.        Regulate the Changes of Life Cycles.
The Suwen, Chapter 1, says: "The Chong Mai and the CV also regulate the changes of the life cycles which occur at 7 yr intervals for women and 8 yr intervals for men.

4.        Circulate Jing Qi to the Entire Body, particularly the 5 "Yuan-Ancestral Organs".
One of the main functions of the 8 Extraordinary Vessels is to deliver Jingqi (Essence-Qi, which has been converted from Yuan-Jing (Source Essence) and KI-Jing (sexual Essence)) to the entire body, including the skin and hair. They must also deliver Jingqi to the 5 Yuan-Ancestral Organs: brain, marrow (spinal cord, bone marrow), LV-GB, uterus, and Xue.

1.        Du Mai (The Governing Vessel, GV)
The GV is the confluence of all the Yang Channels, over which it is said to "govern." Because it controls all the Yang Channels, it is called the "Sea of Yang Channels". This is appropriate, as its conduit flows up the midline of the back, a Yang area, and in the centre of all Yang Channels (except the ST Channel which flows in the front). The GV governs all the Yang Channels, which means that it can be used to increase the Yangqi of the body.

Since the GV is the "Sea of Yang Channels" and it controls or governs the back, the area richest in Weiqi, it also controls the circulation of the body's Weiqi to guard against External evil intruders. The circulation of Weiqi starts from GV16 and moves down the GV to CV01. It is said that it takes 21 d for Weiqi to flow from GV16 to CV01, and 9 d from CV01 to the throat, making it a monthly cycle.

In TCM, Weiqi is Yangqi and therefore represents the Fire of the body. Its quick and ubiquitous circulation keeps the Fire going in the body and controls the loss of body heat. Weiqi also is linked inextricably with the Jin-Ye that flow outside the Channels, in the skin and flesh. Consequently, through the breathing (under control of LU), Weiqi controls the opening and the closing of the pores, and also controls sweating.

The GV also controls nourishment of the 5 Yuan-Ancestral organs, which include the brain and spinal cord.

Yang_JMa02 (1996) The Eight Extraordinary Qi Vessels: Part 2. This is one of the ways in which KI "controls" the brain, in TCM.

Because of their importance to health, the GV and the CV are considered the 2 main Qi Channels to be trained in Qigong, especially in Nei Dan. Training related to these 2 Vessels includes:
1.        How to fill them with Qi so that you have enough to regulate the 12 Channels;
2.        How to open up areas of Stasis in these 2 Vessels so that the Qi flows smoothly and strongly;
3.        How to effectively direct the Qi to nourish the brain and raise the Shen-Spirit;
4.        How to effectively govern the Qi in the 12 Channels, and nourish the organs;
5.        How to use raised Shen-Spirit to lead the Weiqi to the skin and strengthen the Weiqi shield covering the body.

In Nei Dan Qigong training, when you have filled up the Qi in these 2 Vessels and can effectively circulate the Qi in them, you have achieved the "Small Circulation". In order to do this, you must know how to convert the KI-Jing-Essence into Qi, circulate this Qi in the GV and CV, and finally lead this Qi to the head to nourish the brain and Shen-Spirit.

2.        Ren Mai (The Conception Vessel, CV)
means "direction, responsibility." Ren Mai (CV) has a major role in Qi circulation, monitoring and directing all of the Yin Channels (and the ST Channel). CV connects with Chong Mai and Yinwei Mai, and can increase the Yinqi of the body. CV nourishes the uterus (one of the 5 Yuan-Ancestral organs) and the whole genital system. The Neijing says that the CV and Chong Mai contain both Xue and Jing-Essence, and both flow up to the face and around the mouth. They contain more Xue than Jing-Essence in men, and thus promote the growth of the beard and body hair. Because women lose blood with their menstruation, they contain proportionately less Xue and hence, no beard or body hair.

The Suwen says that CV and Chong Mai both control the life cycles every 7 yr for women and every 8 yr for men. It is the changes taking place in these Vessels at those intervals that promote the major alterations in our lives.

CV also controls the distribution and "dispersion" of Weiqi all over the abdomen and thorax via many small Qi branches (Luo). CV also plays an important role in the distribution of Jin-Ye in the abdomen.

In Qigong, CV and GV are the most important among the Qi Vessels, and must be trained first. CV seldom has significant Qi-Stasis. However, it is important to increase the amount of Qi in store; this increases one's ability to regulate the Yin Channels.

3.        Chong Mai (The Thrusting Vessel)
Thrusting Vessel is an appropriate translation of Chong Mai; it evokes images of copulation, the merging of the penis-Yang (GV) and the vagina-Yin (CV) in the perinaeum (near Huiyin CV01). Chong Mai is one of the most important Vessels in successful Qigong training, especially in Marrow Washing. There are three main reasons for this.

1.        Chong Mai intersects two CV points: CV01 (Huiyin, "Meeting Yin", the cavity (point) where Qi of Yang and Yin is transferred) and CV07 (Yinjiao=Yin Junction, the point where Yuanqi (Source Qi, Water-Qi, or Yinqi) meets the Fire-Qi (created from food and air). Chong Mai also connects with 11 KI points. KI is considered the residence of Yuanjing (Source Essence), which is converted into Yuanqi (Source Qi).

Yang_JMa03 (1996) The Eight Extraordinary Qi Vessels: Part 3.

2.        Chong Mai connects directly with the spinal cord and reaches up to the brain. The major goal of Marrow Washing Qigong is to lead the Qi into the marrow and then to the head, to nourish the brain and Shen-Spirit.

3.        The third reason is found in Qigong practice. There are 3 common training paths: Fire, Wind, and Water. In Fire-Path Qigong, the emphasis is on the Fire- or Yang- Qi circulating in the GV and therefore strengthening the muscles and organs. The Fire-Path is the main Qi training in Muscle-Tendon Changing (Yi Jin Jing) Qigong. However, the Fire-Path can also cause the body to become too Yang, and therefore speed up degenerative processes. In order to adjust Fire to a proper level, Marrow Washing Qigong is trained also. This uses the Water-Path, in which Qi separates from the route of the Fire-Path at the Huiyin (CV01) point (cavity), enters the spinal cord, and finally reaches up to the head. The Water-Path teaches how to use Yuanqi to cool down the body, and then to use this Qi to nourish the brain and train the Shen-Spirit. Learning to adjust the Fire and Water-Qi circulation in the body is called Kan-Li, which means Water-Fire.

Chong Mai and CV: One of the main functions of Chong Mai is to connect, to communicate, and to mutually support the CV. Because of this mutual Qi support, both can effectively regulate KI-Qi. KI houses Yuanqi (Source Qi) and is one of the most vital Yin organs.

4.        Dai Mai (The Girdle-Belt Vessel)
The major purpose of the Dai Mai is to regulate the GB-Qi. It also controls Qi's horizontal balance. If you have lost this balance, you will have lost your centre and balance both mentally and physically. In Qigong, the Dai Mai also controls the strength of the waist area. When Qi is adequate and circulating smoothly, back pain will be avoided. Also, because KI is nearby, Dai Mai controls Qi circulation around KI, maintaining KI health. Dai Mai runs through the area of the Lower Dan Tian. In order to lead Yuanqi (Source Qi) from KI to the Lower Dan Tian, the waist area must be healthy and relaxed. This means that the Qi flow in the waist area must be smooth. The training of the Dai Mai has been highly developed, and will be discussed in a later YMAA Book.

5.        Yangqiao Mai (The Yang Heel Vessel)
While the preceding 4 Vessels (GV, CV, Chong Mai and Dai Mai) are located in the trunk, the Yangqiao Mai and the next 3 are located in the trunk and legs. (Also, each of these 4 Vessels is paired). For millions of years, humans have walked on the legs, which preform much more strenuous work than the arms. Possibly, because of this, as evolution proceeded, the legs gradually developed these Vessels to supply Qi support and regulate the Channels. If this is true, it may be that, as time goes on and man uses his legs less and less, in a few million years these Vessels will gradually disappear.

The Yangqiao Mai intersects with other Qi Channels and it regulates the Yang Channels, such as the BL, GB, SI and LI. The Yangqiao Mai also connects with GV. The Qi in this Vessel is supplied mainly through exercising the legs, which converts the food essence or fat stored in the legs. This Qi is then led upward to nourish the Yang Channels. In Qigong, since this Vessel also connects with the brain, certain leg exercises can be used to cure headaches. Since a headache is caused by Qi-Shi in the head, leg-exercises draw this Qi downward to the leg muscles and relieve pressure in the head.

Most training that relates to this Vessel is Wai Dan. Wai Dan Qigong is considered Yang, and specializes in training the Yang Channels, while Nei Dan Qigong is considered relatively Yin and emphasizes the Yin Channels more.

6.        Yinqiao Mai (The Yin Heel Vessel)
The Yinqiao Mai connects with two KI points. Therefore, one of the major sources of Qi for this Vessel is the conversion of KI-Jing-Essence into Qi. In Qigong, the other major Qi source is the Jing-Essence of the external kidneys (testicles). In Marrow Washing Qigong, one of the training processes is to stimulate the testicles in order to increase the hormone production and increase the conversion of the Jing-Essence into Qi. At the same time, you would learn how to lead the Qi in this Vessel up to the head to nourish the brain and Shen-Spirit. With this nourishment, you would be able to reach Buddhahood or enlightenment. From a health and longevity point of view, the raised Shen-Spirit will be able to efficiently direct Qi of the entire body and maintain health.

7.        Yangwei Mai (The Yang Linking Vessel)
The Yangwei Mai regulates the Qi mainly in the Yang Channels: BL, GB, TH, SI, and ST. It also connects with two GV points (GV15 and GV16). The Yangwei Mai and Yangqiao Mai are not emphasized much in Qigong, except in Iron Shirt training where these Vessels, and the GV, are trained.

8.        Yinwei Mai (The Yin Linking Vessel)
The Yinwei Mai connects with the 3 Foot-Yin Channels: KI, SP and LV. The Yinwei Mai also communicates with two CV points. This Vessel is not trained much in Qigong.

Yu_C1; Zhang KJ; Lu G; Wang QL; Shi ZS; Xu JQ; Xie HS; Liu ZJ; Wang YS (1993) Study on the Characteristics of Animal Channels and AP points. Xumu Shouyi Xuebao Jan 24(1):45-51. Beijing Agr Univ, Beijing, PRC. Many scientific studies have shown that the AP Channels exist in humans. Their anatomical courses are relatively stable and they have predictable biophysical characteristics of acoustic-, photo-, thermal-, electrical- and isotope-migration. In contrast, reports on the objective locations and biophysical characteristics of animal Channels are scarce. This study aimed to examine the objective existence and superficial locations of the Channels in various types of animals. 12 sheep, 10 goats, 13 pigs, 11 cats and 7 donkeys were used to determine the low impedance line (LIL) and high procussion sound line (HPSL) on the skin surface along the vertical lines of the dorsal line, using impulsive electrical method and high procussion sound method. Two LILs and two HPSLs were found in each side of all tested animals. They were relatively stable, parallel symmetrically with the dorsal line. The routes of LILS were almost coincident with those of HPSLs, which are similar to those of the classical Channels. The data support the objectivity of the Channels in different species of animals. 12 LILs were found on the body surface of donkeys. Their locations were relatively stable; most coincided basically with those of the corresponding human Channels. Electrical impedance at Qiangfeng in rabbits was lower than that of its surrounding points. The analgesic effect of laser AP was almost inhibited by pressing the AP point. The signal from laser stimulation indicates conduction along the Channels.

Yu_C2; Zhang K; Lu G; Xu J; Xie H; Lui Z; Wang Y; Zhu J (1994) Characteristics of AP Channels and AP points in Animals. Rev Sci Tech OIE Sep 13(3):927-933. C Yu, Agr Univ Beijing, Coll Vet Med, Beijing 100094, PRC. Biophysical aspects of the Channels and AP points in humans and animals have been studied recently. The authors aim to add to data on the objective existence and superficial locations of the Channels in 12 sheep, 10 goats, 13 pigs, 11 cats, 8 rabbits and 7 donkeys. Using electrical impulses and high percussion sound, low impedance lines (LILs) and high percussion sound lines (HPSLs) were measured on the skin surface along the vertical planes of the dorsal line.

Zhang_D1; Gao H; Wen B; Wei Z (1990) Research on the AP principles and Channel phenomena by means of infrared thermography. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 15(4):319-323. Inst of AP and Moxibustion, China Acad of TCM, Beijing, PRC. Thermography offers a good prospect for wide use in the study of AP and Channels and their practical significance. Thermography also has the advantages of being straight-forward, objective and simple. It is suitable for research on AP and Channels. We aimed to research the principles of AP and Channel phenomena, and thus, to elucidate the mechanism of AP effect. We used thermography to study the method of AP, the specificity of AP points, needling without manipulation, "MiuCi" needling, manual AP and EAP, the thermal characteristics of Channels etc. (Results were not available).

Zhang_D (1992) [Application of infrared thermography for study of AP and Channels]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih Sep 12(9):551-554. In Chinese.

Zhang_LS; Tang YZ; Zhang ZX (1983) The skin impedance of the common AP points in sheep. Chung kuo Nung Yeh K'o Hsueh (Sci Agric Sin (Beijing): Nung yeh ch'u pan she. 5:83-87. Beijing, PRC.

Zhu_Z (1990) Study on the morphological basis of physiological and biophysical characteristics of AP Channel. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 15(4):332-334, 296. Biophysics Chinese Acad of Sciences, Beijing, PRC.